LEXOTA (Laws on Expression Online: Tracker and Analysis) offers a comprehensive overview of laws, policies and other government actions on disinformation in every country in Sub-Saharan Africa. The tool is powered by multilingual data and context-sensitive insight from civil society organisations and uses a detailed framework to assess whether government responses to disinformation are human rights-respecting. A dynamic comparison feature empowers users to examine the regulatory approaches of different countries and to compare how different policy responses measure up against human rights standards, providing them with insights into trends across the region as well as the option to examine country-specific analyses.

The tool includes an interactive map that can be used to easily determine what laws, policies, and other government action on disinformation is in place in a given country in Sub-Saharan Africa. The dashboard is also conducive to comparing laws and policies across countries. Lexota seeks to support human rights defenders and freedom of expression in the region by tracking and analyzing these laws and actions.

The methodology for analysis involves a six question framework to analyze legislation and a three question framework for analyzing government action. This is based on the three-part test for permissible restrictions to freedom of expression outlined in the ICCPR Article 19(3) and other sources of interpretive guidance.

The tool was first developed in 2018 by a consortium of CSOs and was earlier known as the Disinformation Tracker. Local experts with legal analysis by the Expression, Information and Digital Rights Unit of the Centre for Human Rights at the University of Pretoria and Global Partners Digital. provide the data and insight essential to power the tool.

As an open, iterative product, LEXOTA will be regularly verified, updated and enriched with new data sources and features over time. We welcome feedback and input from all stakeholders; please contact [email protected] to get in touch.